Radiographic

Training Radiographic

General Information:


Radiographic testing (RT or X-ray) is an NDO method using radiation to irradiate an object. This can be used to detect/demonstrate defects in the object. Performed with an X-ray tube or radiographic source, radiographic testing is known as a test method that can reliably detect defects.

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General

Within radiography, a distinction is made between the recording/exposing of the X-ray and the interpretation of the X-ray.

Radiographic testing:

Before the start of the radiographic examination, the surface condition of the object must be geometrically uniform (grooves and sharp transitions can influence the interpretation). There are no high demands as to surface conditions to be able to perform the examination properly.

Ionizing radiation is used in order to carry out the research. This radiation has the characteristic that it can cause ions in the medium it passes through. It can be generated in an electrical device such as an X-ray tube. Or it can be obtained by the decay of a radioactive source from an unstable state to a stable. In both cases, only the massless energy packets/photons are used for the examination.

The radiation will be used to irradiate the object. By ionisations inside the object the radiation will be partially absorbed. Depending on the composition of the object, each section will present a different absorption. These absorption differences will be recorded by means of an X-ray. The more radiation reaches an X-ray, the darker it becomes. This is similar to the exposure time of a “normal” photo.

In order to assess the X-ray, it will first have to be developed by hand or an automatic process. Through the effect of the radiation, the molecular composition within the light-sensitive layer of the X-ray has changed. During the development process this will be converted into a visible black and white image.

Radiographic X-ray interpretation/reading:

The quality of the X-ray will have to be determined by means of the used picture quality indicator. Assessing/interpreting the captured image is complex, because a 3D object creates a projected 2D image. This obtained image will only consist of black and white and grayscale. Any imperfections in the object will have a different shade of grey (usually darker) with respect to the rest of the object, we call this an indication.

The identified indications are assessed by the inspector using the required standard and/or specification. The indication shall be assessed in accordance with the required standard, resulting in acceptable or unacceptable.

Scope/Products/Sectors

Volumatic examination on materials where both surface and internal defects such as cracks, binding errors, insufficient weld fills gas and slag (inclusions) can be demonstrated.

The examination can be applied to all materials, as long as they are not affected by the radiation applied to them, but in particular on the following products:

  • Blunt welded joints of plate-to-plate or pipe-to-pipe;
  • Casting parts of more complex geometry;
  • Examination of sandwich/honeycomb constructions in the aerospace industry;
  • Examination of composites in the aerospace industry;
  • Corrosion detection or wall thickness determination of piping, appendages and/or welds in the petrochemical, on/offshore and/or food industry;

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The training:


The training courses are provided at different levels. The content of these courses will therefore vary. To gain more insight into the training and the associated costs, you can choose the desired level below.

Level 1 only on request

Level 1 only on request


Level 2

Training Information Level 2


For whom

The training is set up and intended for (oncoming) NDT inspectors/operators for whom a qualification and/or certification is required. In addition, the training gives a detailed insight into the research, this is supporting information for each work planner, QC/QA & quality manager.

The following components are recommended for course participants:

  • A MBO-3 prior education or similar.
  • Basic knowledge of mathematics.
  • Interested in engineering.
  • Technical English, to be able to read standards, specifications & procedures.

Structure

The training includes both a theoretical and a practical part. The training time will be divided 50/50 between the theoretical and practical part. During the training, under the supervision of experienced NDT specialists, the student will lay a foundation for future work.

The objectives

  • Familiarize the student with the basic principles and technical background of radiographic testing with special attention to setting up a test rig and determining the recording parameters.
  • Be able to conduct radiographic testing using various techniques and equipment (X-ray tube & radioactive sources).
  • Be able to draft a thorough work instruction in order to direct a level 1 operator.
  • Reading and interpreting procedures and/or specifications (mainly in English).
  • The unambiguous drafting of test reports.

Content of the training

Basic knowledge of the NDO methods | Material defects (Defectology) | The certification process and system | Physical basic principle of radiographic testing | Choice of Radiation Source | Generation of X-rays | Origin of gamma radiation | Interaction between radiation and object | Measuring and personal protective equipment | Developing the recordings/X-ray Films | Image quality | Application possibilities | Process and quality controls | Safety, environment and health

Practical information

Training duration ISO 9712:
12 days including exam, certification process done via Hobéon SKNDO.

Training duration SNT-TC-1A or EN 4179:
12 days including exam, only exam report. Final certification will have to be done by the company through its own Written Practice.

Exams:
The training meets and can be completed with an exam(-s) in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9712 or according to the requirements of the Written Practice of the own company (SNT-TC-1A and/or EN4179). The exam consists of a theoretical (general and specific) part and a practical part. Both the training and the exam(-s) are tailored to the relevant industrial sectors (e.g.: Testing before and during use (including manufacturing), Aviation or Railway maintenance).

Costs (Excluding VAT):

The training and exam costs are shown below:

Training Costs:
• Re-examination costs theory:
• Re-exam cost practice:
• Re-certification costs:

€ 4.957,- including examination*
Price on request
Price on request
€ 1.660,- 2 day course including examination*

Notes:
* Prices include examination, certification examination according to Hobéon SKNDO, and the course days are fully catered.
If a training is completed in accordance with several certification schemes (for example: ISO 9712 and SNT-TC-1A), no additional fees will be charged, provided this concerns a standard exam. If customer-specific questions (for SNT-TC-1A or EN 4179) need to be prepared, € 170.00 extra per exam will be charged for this exam(-s).

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Level 3

Training Information Level 3


For whom

The course is set up and intended for (the oncoming) NDT specialist for whom a qualification and/or certification is required. The course also provides an insight into the working methods of the testing.

The following components are recommended for course participants:

  • An MBO-4/HBO prior education or similar.
  • Knowledge of mathematics and physics.
  • Interested in engineering.
  • Technical English, to be able to interpret standards.
  • Preferably already having completed the BASIC module with a positive result or be in possession of a level 3 certificate in another method.

Structure

The training includes both a theoretical and a practical part (writing a technical procedure). The training time will be divided 80/20 between the theoretical and practical part. During the training, under the supervision of experienced NDT specialists, the student will lay a foundation for future work.

The objectives

  • Familiarize the student with in-depth physical knowledge of radiographic testing.
  • Distinction and possibilities of film, CR and DR techniques.
  • Special/new applications within the field of radiographic testing.
  • Reading and interpreting certification related standards and/or procedures (mainly in English).
  • Be able to draft a thorough procedure in order to direct a level 2 operator.

Content of the training

Physical principle of radiographic testing | Generation of X-rays | Origin of gamma radiation | Interaction between radiation and object | Influences on absorption coefficient | Measuring and personal protective equipment | Developing the recordings/X-ray Films | Image quality | Application possibilities & Latest techniques (CR & DR) | Interpretation of codes, standards and/or specifications | Process and quality controls | Safety, environment and health

Practical information

Training duration ISO 9712:
9 days including exam, certification process via Hobéon SKNDO.

Exams:
The training meets, and can be completed with an exam(-s) compliant with the requirements of ISO 9712. The theoretical exam consists of 3 parts:

  • Part D: Principles, general knowledge level 3 of the method
  • Part E: Techniques & Specifications
  • Part F: Procedure Writing

Both the training and the exam(-s) are tailored to the relevant industrial sectors (e.g.: Testing before and during use (including manufacturing), aviation or railway maintenance.)

Costs (Excluding VAT):

The training and exam costs are shown below:

Training Costs:
• Re-examination costs theory:
• Re-exam costs writing procedure:
• Re-certification costs:

€ 4.085,- including examination*
Price on request
Price on request
Price on request

Notes:
* Prices include examination, certification examination according to Hobéon SKNDO, and the course days are fully catered.

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